WHAYNE: This is Laura Whayne, L-a-u-r-a W-h-a-y-n-e, interviewingWimberly Royster at the University of Kentucky Transportation Center on Wednesday, May 26, 2010, for the UK Kentucky Transportation Center Oral History Project. Could you please state your name and spell it?
ROYSTER: Yeah. Wimberly Royster, W-i-m-b-e-r-l-y, and Royster, R-o-y-s-t-e-r.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um, could you tell us just a little bit about yourselfand, um, your--
ROYSTER: Well, I'm a native Kentuckian from Henderson County which isin the western part of the state, and, uh, I, uh, came to Kentucky, uh, the University of Kentucky in 1946 as a graduate student in, in 1:00mathematics. And I received a PhD in mathematics in 1952 and then went to Auburn and taught for four years and then came back to UK in 1956 as an assistant professor of mathematics, and then so progressed up the ranks and became chairman of the department and dean of Arts and Sciences and dean of the Graduate School. And I think at that time they called it Coordinator for Research and then later on it became dean of the graduate--it became Vice-President for Research and Graduate Studies is what the final, uh, title of the office was, and that was, uh, that was from 1972 to 1990. And then in, uh, in 1990 to 1992 I served as a special assistant to the president to, really to, uh, continue the, uh, uh, seeking money for the ASTeCC building 2:00here next, next door, practically next door to you all. Yeah. And I retired in 1992 and, uh, went to work with--well, part-time--uh, with the Kentucky Science Technology Corporation of which Dr. Todd was the, uh, chairman of their board, and he had asked me to go down there and to work with EPSCoR program a couple of days a week. And, uh, then while I was there I, I got involved with some people at the National Science Foundation and, uh, then at that--about, I don't know, it turned up eventually eighteen million dollars for math and science, uh, K-12 math and science in the poorest counties in Central Appalachia. 3:00And then in 2002, uh, I came out, back out to the university, and we got something called the Appalachian Math/Science Partnership which was at that time the largest grant, single grant the university had ever gotten. Uh, so, and I've been, I've been working part-time--well, I worked full-time with it for a while and then part-time, uh, for the last, uh, uh, four or five years. So that's pretty much it.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um, let's see. Um, could you tell us a little bit aboutyour areas of research and--
ROYSTER: Well, my area of research was in, was in mathematics. Yeah.And it--pure mathematics. As I say, it was field--geometric analysis is what it was called. 4:00
WHAYNE: Okay. Can you talk about any specific projects or publicationsthat came out of your research or--
ROYSTER: Well, they're really pure mathematic papers. I mean, itwouldn't mean much to anybody.
ROYSTER: I can do it, but it's not, it's not of any value to anybody.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um--
ROYSTER: I might add, uh, while I was dean of the Graduate School, um, Iserved on a lot of national committees and, and also, uh, had some, uh, travel to China with the graduate deans and things of that sort, and then some of those, I wrote some papers about graduate education. But that was, uh--they were, that was--back then, that was in the 1980's, middle 1980's, and so that's not very appropriate today.
WHAYNE: Well, I don't know, but, uh, um, as far as, um, you know, the,5:00in the area of the Transportation Center do you remember about when that came, um--
ROYSTER: Well, I was remembering sometime in the middle eighties is my,uh, my recollection. Um, I don't know. Maybe '84 or '85, something in that neighborhood, and at that time I was, uh, dean of the Graduate School and the research effort was under my office. That's, so that's really why I think that, uh, the connection was made with me and the people that run the institute, run the center at that time is because they were doing some research as well as the applied work that they do, and, uh, so, and we had funds. The funds from the--at that time--the funds from the indirect costs, uh, of grants, indirect costs for 6:00grants, uh, came through my office, and so I, uh--through that office. I shouldn't say my office, but anyway, the research office--and, uh, they, and so we had, uh, uh, a committees, uh, research committees that, uh, did assist in the distribution of those funds. And so it was--well, I wouldn't say well-known, but pretty well-known on the campus that if you needed some funds to help you out for something, well, then you went to the graduate school, to that office.
WHAYNE: Yeah. Was this before the center became part of the universityor after--
ROYSTER: It was a long time before.
WHAYNE: It was?
ROYSTER: Yeah. That had been going on since nineteen--well, probably,I don't know--probably the middle 1960's. That, that program, uh, 7:00research support program had been going on since, so it was a, it was a well-known kind of activity.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um, can you talk anything about either your involvementor the university's involvement with the, um, objectives, goals or the establishment for the, you know, for the center?
ROYSTER: Well, uh, my recollection on that was that they had thisprogram here--and I'm not sure it was a center--I think it was just a program out of Civil Engineering was my, that was my recollection, and then, uh, it became obvious that transportation was more than just, uh, a part of Civil Engineering. And so--and I think, I don't know whether--who was--I don't know whether Dave Blythe was the chairman of 8:00the department at that time or not--but anyway, I knew Dave real well. But, uh, at any rate, so I remember them and, uh, who was the other one? John. Oh, what was his last name?
ROYSTER: Well, I knew John Hutchinson, but this is John, the other John.Jack--
WHAYNE: Oh, Deacon.
ROYSTER: Yeah, yeah. Jack, Jack Deacon. Yeah. And I'd known himreal well, and so, you know, just in talking to faculty members you just, you hear, Well, we're trying to do this. We're trying to do that. And so I knew a little bit about it just from discussions that they were trying to make a center, uh, but I really wasn't too much involved in it until, uh, until Cal Grayson came and talked to me. And I don't know who put him onto me, but--(laughs)--and I, you know, in a way I'm glad he did because he's a dear friend. But at any rate, 9:00uh, my recollection is that he had been trying to get money out of the dean--and I don't know who the dean was at that time but whoever it was--and some other people to get this thing started because he thought it was very important, and Singletary was the, uh, was the president at that time and Singletary was, uh--I mean, I imagine; I don't know for sure, but I imagine--uh, that he, on decisions like this he obviously listened to other people because he was a historian. His knowledge of engineering was zilch, about, I imagine, and so, uh, uh, so there wasn't much happening in terms of getting a--they wanted to set the thing up and then they wanted to fund it. Well, I mean, you can't do much if you don't fund something, and so that's when, uh, uh, Cal came to me and talked to me about--I guess it was Patsy Anderson at that time. Yeah, I'm sure it was--that, uh, if I would support her as, 10:00as, uh, as an assistant to him to get the thing going and did. I did that, and, uh, and so--and I don't know. He wasn't having any luck with anybody else. Money, I guess, was tight at that time. I don't remember, but I'm pretty sure it was. But we, we did have funds to, uh, to support some things of that nature. Yeah. And so--yeah.
WHAYNE: Wow. Can you talk a little bit about any of the challenges, youknow, you were faced with at that time? I mean, you've talked a little bit about, you know, the funding. Were there other issues or--
ROYSTER: Yeah. Well, uh, uh, what we did is with the research fund wasthat most of our support was for, uh, to get, uh, it was to get people started or if they were in something and needed to tide it over, uh, 11:00between a grant, one grant and another grant and they needed, say, fifty thousand dollars or twenty-five thousand dollars or something, uh, then that--those are the kinds of things that we--and we looked at the value and what, what was the potential, and, uh, and Cal, uh, convinced us that, convinced me that the potential was very good for the Transportation Center because there were good people in the center and it was something that could really move on. And, and then, of course, his contacts, uh, his previous contacts with the state may have meant that there would be eventually some state support. He may have had some at that time. That, I don't recall the details of that, but anyway, that's sort of the reason that we did it. So, yeah.
WHAYNE: Can you recall any other people that were involved in thisprocess or transition--
ROYSTER: No. This is just a deal between, uh, between Cal and me.12:00
ROYSTER: (laughs) That's all I--I mean, as I said, there were otherpeople in it. There was Jerry, uh--what's his, what was his last name? ----------(??)
ROYSTER: Huh? No, no. This was before him.
WHAYNE: Oh. I don't know.
ROYSTER: ----------(??) Well, anyway--
WHAYNE: What office did he work for?
ROYSTER: He was, he was one of the researchers, I mean, one of thepeople, and he was well-known in the field. I don't remember now.
WHAYNE: Do you remember what field that was within transportation?
ROYSTER: Um, I don't know. No. I don't remember. Yeah.
WHAYNE: Okay. That's fine. And, uh, um--
ROYSTER: I can picture him now, but I just don't remember.
WHAYNE: I understand. That's--(laughs)--that's fine. Um--
ROYSTER: If I recall this then I can pick it out real quick like, but,uh--
WHAYNE: Uh-huh. We may think of it later. That's fine. Um, what did,13:00do you see as, um, the greatest potential of the center, um, as far as impacting transportation in Kentucky or--
ROYSTER: Well, I saw it as two things. I saw it as impactingtransportation in Kentucky, uh, providing the, the transportation department at the state with expertise. I mean, that's what I thought it was to do and that's what I think it did (??). Plus, also a national, uh, they looked at things nationally and they had some innovative people. And, uh, they, they, uh, and they did keep me--Cal kept me fairly well informed, and then the only other, the other thing I was involved in was the Asphalt Institute. Yeah. I was involved in bringing that here.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um, can you talk a little bit about that, uh, AsphaltInstitute?
ROYSTER: Yeah. Yeah. Well, the program--uh, Cal found out that, some14:00way or another, that they were thinking about moving, might be moving from Maryland. I believe they were in Maryland, and so what, uh, and so he talked to me about it--and Roselle was president at that time--and he talked to David Roselle about it. And, uh, we got, uh, Mary Ellen Reed she was at that time--she's Sloan now--got, uh, her people to do a, uh, to make a short movie, uh, promotional movie, and then we took, and then Cal did a lot of, of background work on this I'm sure and some other people probably in the institute, in the center did but I didn't know. And so anyway, we went up to Washington and made a presentation, and so we had--and we had the vice-president for research--and at that time I was the vice-president for research--vice- president of research and the head of the center and, and the president 15:00of the university and, uh, made a very good presentation. And, uh, so they decided to move. I'm sure there were other negotiations that went on behind the scenes that I wasn't involved in, but that was, that was my involvement in it. And then, uh, I've followed it a little bit since then but not, not near as much. I think the guy who--I've forgotten the guy's name who was head of it at that time, he was a friend of Cal's, and, uh, uh, but then he retired or resigned a few years later and I haven't kept up with it that much.
WHAYNE: Do you remember about when this happened?
ROYSTER: It was about--well, it'd have to be--(whistles)--Rosellecame here in 1987 so it would have to be '88, '89. Somewhere in that neighborhood. Eighty-eight, I think probably because he wasn't here 16:00but three years, so it had to be, it had to be. Yeah.
WHAYNE: Do you remember what the things that were said or, or how, youknow, the, as far as promoting the--
ROYSTER: Well, promoting it, I think, the things that I recall, you know--what is that? Twenty years ago or something? Yeah--(laughs)--the things that I recall was that the, that we did with the, with the, uh, video that we had, one was that we had a pretty nice space, all the space that they needed. We had, uh, we had a transportation center which they evidently knew something about. It wasn't--I don't think this was all new to them--which had been, which had been doing good work. We had a president who was supporting it, the president of the university who was supporting it, the research officer was supporting it, and, uh, uh, I think that they saw--and also, I think the other thing is that 17:00they saw it more centrally located in the United States, but so we did a pretty horse farm thing, all these kinds of things, you know, and it is beautiful. And, and I think that had something to do with it, just the scenery and, and what's available in Lexington at the university. We told them about the College of Engineering and, of course, the medical center here. You just laid it on real strong. Uh--
WHAYNE: Um, getting back a little bit to the Transportation Center, um,was there ever any discussion, you know--it's within the College of Engineering and there are some centers that are with the UK Research. You know, there's different, um, um--
ROYSTER: Right. Right.
WHAYNE: --was there ever any discussion or what were the thoughts as far18:00as where the Transportation Center should be placed administratively or organizationally?
ROYSTER: I don't recall that there was anything. Let's see. This wasthe middle eighties, and, uh, I, I'm trying to think that if--because the graduate school office or the research office, we had about twelve or thirteen centers out there, a lot of centers under us at that time, interdisciplinary centers. And I think maybe it was considered to be more, uh, oriented toward the, uh, engineering effort, civil 19:00engineering, and I--who was, I don't even remember who was dean at that time. It wasn't Bob Drake, I don't think. He--no. It was after, it was after Bob, and so I don't remember who was dean. But at any rate I think that, uh, I think it was very, very closely associated with the engineering program. It was really civil engineering, primarily, whereas the other centers that we had were centers that, uh, crossed departments and things of this sort a good bit. They were, well, they were multi-disciplinary centers, and, uh, I do recall that there was some discussion about it. I do recall that, but, uh, I, I think that, uh, uh, I think that it was decided that it was associated, it was tied to the state and, uh, it was associated with the college very, very closely. And, uh, that didn't appear to be--and it was really 20:00inner-college. Let's see. Most of the other ones we had were across colleges, and there really wasn't any cross college--as I recall-- cross-college fertilization in this. I mean, it didn't go over to Arts and Sciences. These weren't Arts and Sciences people. There weren't Ag people in it and so on, so it was more of a, it was more of a College of Engineering center, but there was, as, as I recall there was some discussion of it. Yeah.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um, are you aware of any of the legislators that wereinvolved with the establishment of the center or that legislation?
ROYSTER: No, I'm not. I'm not. Um, I know there was, but then I wasn'treally aware. Yeah.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um, are you, uh, familiar with any of the, um, successes21:00or programs within the center or, you know, research projects? Any specific projects or areas of research that they were noted for?
ROYSTER: Well, not--I was. I mean, I don't recall that, but they didkeep me informed. But I just don't recall--I do recall one thing that, uh, that Cal did that was about the--hmm, what is the--truck--
WHAYNE: Oh, Advantage I-75 and the--
ROYSTER: Yeah. That I was, uh, but one reason for that is that see,see, when you--(laughs)--when you ride and you go the interstate--but, but I was aware of that and he filled me in on a lot of that at the beginning. I thought it was really a great idea, it was a great idea, um, and I know that other people did research on, you know, on, on concrete, on, uh, roads, on wear and tear of, of asphalt and those 22:00kinds of things (??). I knew they did that, but I just wasn't--and I knew they got a good bit of support from the federal government. I mean, all of that I was aware--that part I was aware of, but just the details about it I don't remember.
WHAYNE: Are you familiar at all with the Technology Transfer Program andits work within the center which is headed by Patsy Anderson?
ROYSTER: No, I'm not.
WHAYNE: Okay. Um--
ROYSTER: I mean, I know they have one, but, I mean, I don't--
ROYSTER: --I don't really know too much about--
WHAYNE: --the specifics? Yeah. Okay. Um, um, how do you see--this isa little broader question--how do you see transportation having changed in Kentucky, say, within your lifetime or-- 23:00
ROYSTER: (laughs) Within my lifetime, that's a tremendous change.(laughs) It's gone from, gone from gravel roads to--(laughs)--to super highways. Yeah. Well--(clears throat)--I think, I think that transportation--the state has done quite well in transportation. They've had, they've had their problems, political problems, you know, and all that sort of stuff, but when you really look at it, uh, they've had some forward looking people, uh, as secretaries and then I think this center here has bolstered their, uh, bolstered their ability to do some things that they would not have been able to do. I think, I think but I don't know, but I just got the idea that this, the center here is fairly highly regarded nationally. That's from--and I picked that up when we were doing the institute, the institute thing. But the 24:00change, uh, the change, uh, is unbelievable. It's unbelievable, uh, the change, you know. I grew up when, uh, we were farming. We were farmers in Henderson County and the roads were dirt roads to our house and now the road to the house--I still own the farm that I was born and raised in--and, uh, uh, and the road to the house now is paved. I mean- -(laughs)--so that's a local thing. That's a local thing, but also, but the highway system, you know, I mean, really, uh, Eisenhower in the, uh, doing the, uh, super, superhighways and so on, uh, that really seemed like to me started a real change in the way, in transportation. Yeah. It really did because then after that, states seemed to be, uh, considering more about what their, what their highway systems were, and, uh, and now of course rural roads in Kentucky are far better than, 25:00you know, than they were even twenty years ago. When you talk about, you know, seventy years ago, it's a whole lot different.
WHAYNE: Do you have any thoughts as far as issues facing transportationright now?
ROYSTER: Oh, I, I think--yes. Well, yes. I think the issues facingtransportation, you've got three sources, I guess, of, uh, uh, transportation, maybe more than that. Really it's not sources. They're ways in which you can move from one place to another, but at any rate you've got, you have the air, airplane and air industry, uh, you have the railroad and then you have highways. Those are the ones that I see. Uh, I think that, uh, the highways will continue to 26:00improve in some, I mean, but that's very costly. I don't see any new, any big, uh, quantum jump in that like there was when Eisenhower went from, you know, I don't think it--I think the next one is going to have to be railroads, the rail industry, but I don't know where you're, how they're going to do it but it seems to me they're going to have to. Of course, another thing is we have no idea, uh, what the, uh, energy, uh, issue, situation is going to be. I mean, if we go to a sale--(laughs)- -you know, different kinds of vehicles, you know, it's, it's--fifteen years from now I have no idea--but the interesting thing is, uh--and I think this is a place where, and maybe, uh, transportation people don't look at that, but I'm sure there are people who are looking at 27:00the future of transportation, and, uh, obviously they know a whole lot more about it, what it might be than I do. But it's something that any transportation center needs to be looking at. So you've got two things. One, you've got to keep what you've got in good shape and then you got to be looking at what is it going to be like in ten years from now, fifteen years from now, twenty years from now, whatever. Yeah. Yeah.
WHAYNE: Could you talk a little bit--I'm trying to think if we've kindof covered this already--but as far as the funding of the center and particularly from the research, um, program and how that worked and--
ROYSTER: Well, really, really, um, the only funding, as I recall, thatwas, was rendered to get it started. After that they, after that they 28:00brought in their own money from state and from the federal, federal government, and they were very successful in doing that and then they, they had, uh--see, I think the people that were in the center, uh, to start with, I mean, the faculty and the researchers were already employees of the university pretty much. And so, but then they got in extra people with grants and to do (??) grants and things of this sort, but, uh, as I recall it would have been small support that the research, uh, office at the university would have provided after it provided her support for her. And I think we continued that for I don't know how many years until they got, she got all the grants and- -but anyway, that was the agreement was to do that until they could get on their own feet. And so, and they did. Uh-huh. Yes. 29:00
WHAYNE: Can you think of anything else as far as from the universityperspective or the Office of Research perspective and its relationship with the Transportation Center--maybe something I've forgotten, haven't thought to ask--um, or any other thoughts, um, about that relationship, people involved, um, certain incidents? You know, certain--
ROYSTER: Well, while I was--I can't speak after I got out of thatoffice--but while I was in the office there were always close, uh, a very close relationship between the center and the research office. I mean, we, uh, we were kept informed about what they were doing, uh, about grants that they got and things of that nature, uh, and so--which meant that we continued to support them, uh--(coughs)--Patsy, and we 30:00may have supported some other small grants. I don't, that's, I don't recall because, but, uh, anyway, that was the kind of support we gave and, and the, uh, connection or interaction between those offices was very good at that time. Uh, and, uh, then I don't--then this building came along after I, after I left. They were over on the other side, and there was always, there was, sometimes there was this problem of moving them here, moving them there. They, they were sometimes treated like stepchildren, and I, I don't mind anybody knowing I say that. (laughs) Well, and, and that wasn't unique for this center. That, it's a tendency within the university to treat centers as not like departments because they're not academic. They're not, uh, you know, 31:00that--the departments and the colleges are really the foundation for the academic program, and the centers are really spun off from those and therefore they do, a lot of them do get treated like stepchildren. This one had, this one was a little better, different from other centers that I had to deal with and the main reason for that is that the people were funded--(coughs)--I think all the people were funded in the College of Engineering and, and maybe most all of them had been funded to start out with in the Civil Engineering Department whereas with other centers that I worked with, uh, there were people who were funded in different colleges. And what would happen--it would be faculty members--what would happen would be that their colleagues would say, "Well, now look. He or she are not doing what they ought 32:00to be in our department. They're off over there working with these other people and, you know, and doing their own thing over there, so we're, you know--," so well, when they got ready for a promotion that was a problem and things of that nature. That was not the case as I understood, as I remember in this, in this center. So it, it did operate, uh, very well from that standpoint and the people working in it didn't have that problem. And that is somewhat of an advantage of a center being located in the college, but on the other hand, uh, if it is the type of a center that needs to be multi-disciplinary then they don't have the contacts with people from the outside who might have new ideas how they should attack the problems. 33:00
WHAYNE: I'd like to hear a little bit more about your work with the, um,ASTeCC and is it EPSCoR? E-P-S-C-O-R?
WHAYNE: Uh, as far as what that involved--
ROYSTER: Well, uh, the ASTeCC is, uh, this is probably about 1980,I guess; '80--I don't know--'82 or three. At any rate, uh, I was, as vice-president--well, I don't know whether it was vice-president for research or vice-chancellor for research. They had all kinds of names, but at any rate, uh, uh, I was aware that, uh, there was in universities getting funds, uh, designated for certain projects. And so, uh, I--and there was a fellow who worked for President Singletary 34:00by the name of Jim King, and Jim King was, uh, he was aware of this, too, to some extent. So we tried to talk Dr. Singletary into getting some money, uh, to build a building for Technology Transfer, and, uh, well, really it was really--had to be more--uh, well, it was to really, uh, eventually commercialize the research that's coming out from the University of Kentucky. That's really what was, was originally thought about. Well, he didn't much want to but he finally decided to, and we got an org-, got some people in Washington to help us. And we put in, uh, we wrote the proposal not to any agency. This was, it was really a plan rather than a proposal, and we took it to Washington and these people, these consultants, uh, helped us get it to the 35:00right people. And, uh, and so Senator Ford--at that time, Jim King was working for Senator Ford--and so--(clears throat)--so, uh, we got Senator Ford and, uh, Congressman Natcher and, uh, Congressman Rogers to help us put, uh--get some money stuck in the budget and what they called earmarking, uh, for this building, and we had a plan. It was to be about seventeen or eighteen million dollars, and they were--they would do about four million dollars at a time. And Congressman Rogers' people, they--well, to be honest with you didn't any of them know anything about earmarking. These people who helped us--(laughs)--had knew about it, and now Rogers' people are very good at earmarking. But they, they didn't know much about it at that particular time. It was early on. So at any rate, so, uh, EDA--Economic Development Agency--I 36:00think that's what it was called, uh, a federal, a federal agen-, um, Rogers was able to put it in their budget on the basis that we were going to create jobs, and so, uh, so we did. And so I, uh, I, I was--at that time, I was again in charge of the research program here- -so I, uh, worked with, uh, Rogers' people and Natcher's people and all--and Ford's and so on. And, uh, each year we would get, you would have to get that put in the budget. And it was the same old thing over and over again, but at any rate, so we did eventually get about seventeen million dollars. And, uh, so I retired in 1990 from the vice-presidency. That was, at that time you were required to retire at sixty-five if you were an administrator--(clears throat)--not a faculty 37:00member, but an administrator--so though, uh, Dr. Wethington became, uh, president then in, uh, 1990 I guess it was. Yes. And so he asked me to stay on for a couple more years, uh, which I did to get funding, finish the funding for ASTeCC. Now, but then some other people took it over--well, we, you know, we had the architects and everything--but the other people took it over after that and then, and, uh, and it is doing exactly what we said it would do. It is. People, uh, faculty members go in there and stay three years. That was the idea to start with. Uh, stay three years, uh, get their patent and stuff or whatever stuff that it is they have, you know, to the point that they could take it out, they move out into another place and then commercialize 38:00their--what they do (??). So that, that was the AS-, that was my role with ASTeCC was really to get, to get it started and to get the funding, uh, secured for it. And then it was, uh, the EPSCoR is, uh, something that stands for Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research, and, uh, it started in--well, what it was--it was started by the federal government, really started by the National Science Foundation. But, uh, it was to assist states that had, that were at the lower end of, uh, of, uh, federal funding, research funding at the lower end--bottom, you know. Well, Kentucky was, uh, wasn't at the 39:00bottom. The first, there were seven states and I don't know--South Carolina, Alabama, uh, I've forgotten now who the others were. Uh, one of the Dakotas, I think, Vermont and Arkansas--but anyway there were seven states that in 1979 or '80, uh, we got, were supported by the National Science Foundation on research, on research, for research. Then in 1986 is when I got involved in it--by '86--I got involved in it because they, uh, it turned out that Congress liked that because that was a way of, of distributing the research funding because, uh, from the large states, you know, like Illinois or Massachusetts or California. And so, uh, they decided to increase the number of states, and so we were in the second round, Kentucky was, along with--I don't know, uh, who some of the others were at that time. Uh, seems like to 40:00me it was South Dakota at that time and, uh, Nevada. I've forgotten, but there, there were a number of them. And so, uh, then, so I got involved at that time and, uh, at that time also Lee Todd was made chairman of the statewide committee and that's how I got involved with him on that. But at any rate, what, what it does is that they set aside a certain amount of money--the National Science Foundation did- -and these states compete for that money. You don't, it's not a grant to the state. You have to compete for it, and there are some states that get it and some states don't get it depending upon the quality of their proposal. Uh, Kentucky has gotten NSF support every year since then--still getting it, uh, still getting it--uh, because they've had, they've had, uh, proposals that won the funding. Uh, then, but 41:00then as I said, the Congress liked it so they told the Department of Energy, "You've got to do one of these." NASA, "You've got to do one of these." Department of Defense has to do one of them, uh, and so, uh, it turns out that there are about five or six, about five or six agencies. The Department of Commerce doesn't do one and the EPA doesn't do one anymore, but at any rate, uh, uh, they told these other agencies, "You have to do that." So, uh, the Department of Energy, we, they came about in about 1990 and, uh, we--or '91 maybe it was--and we received a grant and have had a grant ever since then. So what I, so what I did when I retired, uh, that was when Lee Todd said, well, we have--various agencies have these programs and they're not coordinated in the state, you know, so and, and one thing that you had to do is build, uh, a rapport--(laughs)--or sort of a cooperative attitude among 42:00the state institutions. It just couldn't be just UK or U of L, and so because that I'd been graduate dean and knew all the people, the people in the state universities, that's why Lee asked me to do that. And so I, and so I was able to, uh, uh--and so I went down to Kentucky Science and Technology Corporation--that's where Lee was, uh, was president of their board at that time or chairman of their board. So, uh, so then I began to, uh--many of these programs at the state had to match, so what I did was I worked with the state legislature, uh, to get matching money. And so, uh, NSF's money had to be matched one-to-one. Some of the other programs would be matched, uh, one, one-to-two or two- 43:00to-one--one-to-two. Matched one-to-two, in other words, fifty percent. No. That's not right. It's, it's fifty percent of the full match which would be really, I guess, one-third--(clears throat)--but at any rate, uh--(coughs)--and so that, that's what, that's all that. And so, uh, we had a statewide committee which I, which I chaired, and there were representatives from each of the state, uh, uh, institutions, uh, public institutions on there. And, uh, and many of those then were brought--even though the grant, the grant came to Kentucky, Eastern and Morehead were on it, uh, uh, maybe Murray. Same way at Louisville. If it came to Louisville, might be, Western might be on with Louisville, but, and some of them began--after about three or four years--began to 44:00get their own grants. And that's really what the whole, that's what the whole thing was about was the--
WHAYNE: What types of grants were they?
ROYSTER: They're just, just regular grants that you would get, like,I mean, you know, biology--they were all in science. Now the grant here at the University of Kentucky, uh, right now, uh, is, uh--Dr. Grulke heads up, and it--they're working with the center, the energy center out here and--I don't know--some other professors and they're working on energy problems. I don't know exactly what they are, any of what they are. The National Science Foundation is more, uh, well, it's pretty broad. It's biology and medicine. There are some people, medical--academic medicine, not clinical medicine--uh, physics. You know, the faculty members can make proposals to, make a proposal. Then 45:00there's a committee of people that puts that proposal together, and they throw out what doesn't look like it's good and they put in what is good. And they send it off to, uh, uh, the agency, and then the agency has a group that reviews it. So it's, it's, uh, they handle it very much like, uh, like an ordinary grant would be.
WHAYNE: Do you know if, uh, transportation ever received any of these,uh, grants or funding?
ROYSTER: Not right off hand. Not--I don't know if they did.
WHAYNE: Okay. Okay.
ROYSTER: They might have been on something in, in--oh, I don't know. Idon't know. I really don't know.
WHAYNE: Okay. Okay. Um, is there anything else you can think of, uh,that, uh, particularly as it relates to the Transportation Center? I feel like we've covered things pretty well.
ROYSTER: Right. Yeah.46:00
WHAYNE: (laughs) So, uh, well, I really appreciate you, uh, coming to,uh, interview, uh, today, and, um, the, uh, ending time is 10:20 and thank you very much.
ROYSTER: Well, you're quite welcome.
[End of interview.]