0:26 - Interview introduction

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Partial Transcript: Well, uh, Mr. Roach. When we last talked...

Segment Synopsis: There is an introduction to Coach Sanford T. Roach.

Keywords: african americans; basketball; Kentucky

Subjects: African Americans. Basketball. Kentucky. Pitino, Rick. University of Kentucky.

1:49 - Biographical background and education

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Partial Transcript: At the University of Kentucky. Now, just for the people who are going to be listening to this and reading this in the future...

Segment Synopsis: Background information is given on Sanford T. Roach and his family. Included are his educational background, birthplace and birthdate.

Keywords: basketball; Bate High School (Danville, Ky.).; childhood and youth; coaching; Danville, Kentucky; dentistry; Dunbar High School (Lexington, Ky.); education; employment; family; Frankfort, Kentucky; Sanford Thomas Roach

Subjects: African Americans. Coaching (Athletics). Danville (Ky.). Education. Frankfort (Ky.). Kentucky State University. Teaching.

2:39 - Working at a reform school

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Partial Transcript: Interruption. Following my graduation from Kentucky State College at that time...

Segment Synopsis: Roach tells of a job that he took at Kentucky Village Reform School. He was recommended for the job by Rufus B. Atwood, the president of Kentucky State College at that time.

Keywords: Bate High School (Danville, Ky.).; delinquent children; Kentucky Village Reform School; reform schools

Subjects: Atwood, Rufus B., 1897-. Danville (Ky.). Juvenile delinquents. Reformatories. Teaching.

3:48 - Danville and Dunbar High School

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Partial Transcript: So, you, you went back to Danville then after that year at Kentucky Village and, uh, taught and coached basketball...

Segment Synopsis: Roach talks about some of the jobs that he accepted after his time teaching at the reform school and why he took them. He also talks about becoming the head coach at Dunbar High School.

Keywords: coaching; discipline; Dunbar High School; F.L. Baker; high school basketball; Lexington; Paul Laurence Dunbar High School; pay raises; rule violations

Subjects: Basketball. Coaching (Athletics). Danville (Ky.). Lexington (Ky.).

5:54 - Segregation and career plans

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Partial Transcript: Let me... and we might duplicate here some of the things you've talked about before on the...

Segment Synopsis: Roach talks about living in a segregated society, especially his prospects in high school and going on to college. He tells how his father died the day after Christmas during his senior year of high school and how that affected his career plans.

Keywords: ambitions; college education; death of family members; dentists; Kentucky State College; parents; racial discrimination; racism

Subjects: African Americans. Danville (Ky.). Education (Higher). Education. Howard University. Kentucky State University. Segregation.

7:53 - Roach's parents

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Partial Transcript: Now, how did he end up going to Howard and becoming a dentist?

Segment Synopsis: He shares how his father became a dentist. His father (Roach's grandfather) was a farmer, but he encouraged his son to pursue a higher education, paying for him to attend Howard. He also talks about his mother, who was a school teacher.

Keywords: Bate High School (Danville, Ky.).; college; dentistry; dentists; education; farmers; Kentucky Normal; marriage; school teachers; upward mobility

Subjects: Education (Higher). Frankfort (Ky.) Harrodsburg (Ky.). Howard University. Mercer County (Ky.).

10:25 - African American professionals

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Partial Transcript: So, was there a, um, black professional class in, in Danville...

Segment Synopsis: They discuss the number of professional African Americans in Danville. Desegregation had a very negative effect on this class of people because they suddenly had to compete with whites in their profession.

Keywords: Bate High School (Danville, Ky.).; competition in careers; dentists; doctors; integration; lawyers; ministers; school integration

Subjects: African Americans Danville (Ky.). Lexington (Ky.). Segregation.

11:53 - An only child and Howard University

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Partial Transcript: Um, did you have brothers and sisters?

Segment Synopsis: Roach states that he did not have any siblings, and they talk about how unusual this was for that time. There is an interruption in the interview. They continue to talk about his father's death and how it affected his decision not to go to Howard. He also talks about a second opportunity that he had to go there, which he turned down because his first wife had to be hospitalized.

Keywords: education; family aspirations; hospitalization; illness; only children; parents

Subjects: Education (Higher). Howard University. Lexington (Ky.).

14:01 - Kentucky State College

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Partial Transcript: So, uh, here again when you graduate from Danville, when you... you make the decision to go to Kentucky State?

Segment Synopsis: Roach talks about his decision to go to Kentucky State College, now Kentucky State University, where his mother had attended college. At that time the University of Kentucky was segregated, but he never thought about trying to challenge that.

Keywords: segregation; teachers

Subjects: Frankfort (Ky.). Howard University. Kentucky State University. Lexington (Ky.). Ohio State University. University of Kentucky.

16:06 - Teaching aspirations and student life

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Partial Transcript: So, when you made the decision to go to Kentucky State, were you also making the decision to become a teacher?

Segment Synopsis: He affirms that originally he wanted to be a teacher, and that coaching wasn't something he had really considered at that time. He also talks about his college years and describes an incident in which he got in trouble with Dr. Atwood for what he wrote in the school paper.

Keywords: biological sciences; college basketball; college life; education; english literature; getting married; H.E. Cheney; school; school papers; science teachers; teachers; teaching

Subjects: Atwood, Rufus B., 1897-. Basketball. Danville (Ky.). Kentucky State University. Mercer County (Ky.).

20:05 - A narrow escape

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Partial Transcript: 'Course, my mother, at that time she was teaching a place called Unity, Kentucky.

Segment Synopsis: Roach recounts an incident in elementary school when he was hit by a car in Salvisa but somehow was unscathed. He also talks about some of the friends that he has there.

Keywords: car accidents; cars; parental discipline; road accidents

Subjects: Salvisa (Ky.).

21:46 - Race relations in Frankfort

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Partial Transcript: What was, uh... as you were, uh, in college in Frankfort, what were race relations like...

Segment Synopsis: Roach describes the segregated nature of Frankfort once one left the Kentucky State campus. He characterizes the race relations of that time there as being very poor and gives specific examples of why he thinks so. They talk about how Kentucky State generally got less funding and media coverage than its white dominated equivalents.

Keywords: Bellpoint; education; Frankfort High School; funding for education; high schools; integration; prisons; racism; segregation; Sower field; whites

Subjects: African Americans. Chandler, Happy, 1898-1991. Frankfort (Ky.).Atwood, Rufus B., 1897-. Kentucky State University.

27:43 - Early teaching career

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Partial Transcript: Moving on, then, I guess to, um, when you became a teacher in Danville, you became a biology teacher?

Segment Synopsis: He talks about his time as a general science teacher in Danville, teaching at the same high school he graduated from. They discuss his personal philosophies about teaching, which he attributes mainly to his parents. He also talks about Danville itself and how Centre College assisted Bate High School by providing athletic equipment. They continue to talk about race relations in Danville.

Keywords: Bate High School (Danville, Ky.); Coach Dudley Doneghy; Danville High School (Danville, Ky.); personal philosophies; principles about teaching; segregation; teaching; teaching career

Subjects: Basketball. Centre College (Danville, Ky.). Danville (Ky.). Education.

32:49 - Reminiscing about family

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Partial Transcript: An incident that, uh, 'course my mother, as a schoolteacher...

Segment Synopsis: He remembers an incident in which his father, a high ranking Mason, hosted a beer party for a Masonic state convention in Danville. His mother was nearly fired over it. He reminisces about his family members. and talks about his parents' burials.

Keywords: alcohol; burial plots; families; masons; parties; Pendleton family; segregation

Subjects: Danville (Ky.). Frankfort (Ky.). Freemasonry. Harrodsburg (Ky.)

36:16 - Travelling in a segregated society

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Partial Transcript: Let me go back to one other question, though, about life back then.

Segment Synopsis: He tells of how African Americans had to make special preparations for traveling in a segregated society. He talks about a trip that he made with John Bate and his wife, who were both light-skinned enough to be mistaken for being white. He also talks about a class trip to Florida when his wife was a teacher.

Keywords: Douglas High School (Lexington, Ky.); driving; high school trips; John W. Bate; outhouses; segregation; tour buses; travel plans; traveling; World's Fair

Subjects: African Americans. Florida. Lexington (Ky.). Lookout Mountain (Appalachian Mountains). Miami (Fla.).

40:44 - Early possibilities of becoming a dentist

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Partial Transcript: Ah, boy. Did your father ever consider, or did he ever talk to you about considering relocating out...

Segment Synopsis: Going back to an earlier topic, they discuss Roach's father and Roach's considering following in his footsteps to become a dentist. He talks about he avocation as a teacher and explains that his mother only saw him play one major basketball game, in which he was injured.

Keywords: careers; dentists; parents

Subjects: Basketball. Kentucky State University.

43:23 - Playing sports as a young person

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Partial Transcript: Did you, did you grow up playing... you haven't mentioned baseball...

Segment Synopsis: He talks about the sports that he played growing up and the Negro Leagues of that time in baseball. Danville did not have a professional team, but Lexington did. In specific, he talks about William "Bunny" Davis, a friend and classmate of his.

Keywords: african american baseball players; baseball; William E. "Bunny" Davis

Subjects: African Americans. Danville (Ky.). Lexington (Ky.). Negro leagues.

44:37 - Disciplining the players and teaching evaluations

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Partial Transcript: When, when you, uh, you said that, uh, you had a disciplinary problem with your basketball team that was on its way...

Segment Synopsis: Roach describes a well-known incident in which he disciplined several high school basketball team he coached for violating curfew. They were some of his best players, but he suspended them for the season anyways. He also talks about how this indirectly led to a job offer to teach in Lexington.

Keywords: Bate High School; Beaumont Inn; Coach Baker; coaches; curfew; discipline; Dunbar High School; P.L. Guthrie; parental pressure; Ralph Cherry; sports training; state tournament; students; teaching evaluations; waiters

Subjects: Basketball. Danville (Ky.). Harrodsburg (Ky.). Lexington (Ky.). Owensboro (Ky.).

49:43 - Summer jobs

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Partial Transcript: How'd you learn to be a waiter?

Segment Synopsis: They discuss Roach's stint as a waiter on steamships on the Great Lakes during World War II. He did this during his summers when he was a student as a way of making some extra money. He also was a camp counselor in Michigan. He discusses some of the places that he went while working these jobs.

Keywords: baseball teams; camp counselors; camping; DNC Navigation Company; F.L. Baker; fishing; St. Paul A.M.E.; steamships; storms; unions; waiters; Western States (Ship); World War II

Subjects: Detroit (Mich.). Grand Hotel (Mackinac Island, Mich.). Great Lakes (North America). Kentucky State University. Mackinac Island (Mich.). World War, 1939-1945.

55:34 - World War II and side jobs

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Partial Transcript: Let me ask you, uh, as we move into World War II...

Segment Synopsis: He talks about being nearly drafted for World War II, selling his prized car and becoming the head coach at Dunbar High School. He also talks about other side jobs he had in the early 40's and white friends that he has had.

Keywords: apartment dwelling; Aspendale; Canary Cottage (Lexington, Ky.); Charlotte Court (Lexington, Ky.); draft boards; drafting; Dunbar High School; friends; Horace Hogan; military

Subjects: Cincinnati (Ohio). Danville (Ky.). Lexington (Ky.). Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941. World War, 1939-1945.

60:33 - University of Kentucky

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Partial Transcript: Um, as your teaching and coaching career starts to take off at Dunbar...

Segment Synopsis: He talks about his getting a masters degree at the University of Kentucky. UK had started allowing black students starting in the 1940's after a lawsuit by Lyman Johnson. They talk about Johnson's personality and teachers' reactions to the lawsuit.

Keywords: coaching; dentistry; dentists; desegregation; Dunbar High School; graduate school; harrassment; racism; segregation; teaching

Subjects: Dickey, Frank Graves. Howard University. Johnson, Lyman T., 1906-1997. University of Kentucky.

70:04 - Nicknames and treatment at UK

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Partial Transcript: The thing that I run into mostly now, and in most of the meetings I have to attend, um, they call me "Coach".

Segment Synopsis: He talks about how most people tend to call him "Coach", even though he would prefer to be called by his name. They continue to talk about his time as a graduate student at the University of Kentucky. He mentions friends that he made there and professors that he had. They sum up his time there.

Keywords: education; equal treatment; friends; Helen Reeves (?); introductions; Katherine Rawlins; nicknames; Thomas Child

Subjects: University of Kentucky.

78:02 - Racial segregation at the UK Coliseum and the economic aspects of racism

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Partial Transcript: Did I tell you about when I was put out of UK Coliseum...

Segment Synopsis: Roach talks about the night he was told to leave the UK Coliseum in 1957. They got good seats because the ticket seller didn't realize his friend who bought the ticket was African American, but they were told that they had to either sit in the back or leave. They talk about the economic implications of going against the white-dominated system and what happened when he and another teacher asked for a raise.

Keywords: basketball audience; Dunbar High School; Henry Clay High School (Lexington, Ky.); Memorial Coliseum; P.L. Guthrie; racial segregation; racism; salaries

Subjects: African Americans. Basketball. Boy Scouts. Segregation. University of Kentucky.

82:43 - Career choices

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Partial Transcript: And about that... in '65, my wife passed...

Segment Synopsis: He talks about his considering becoming a principal at Carver School. He tells what his family members thought of some of his potential career choices. He talks about his children and how the death of his first wife affected him and his interest in coaching.

Keywords: Carver School; coaching; college teaching; deaths; principals; sports fans

Subjects: Alcorn State University. Dickey, Frank Graves. Frankfort (Ky.). Kentucky State University. Lexington (Ky.)

85:21 - Race relations and basketball

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Partial Transcript: What did you... as a coach in a highly successful high school program... you were developing great players...

Segment Synopsis: Roach didn't have much interaction with Adolph Rupp, personally. He talks about the hiring of Tubby Smith and how he feels Rupp could have influenced the Southeastern Conference to allow black players if he had chose. He tells of taking his high school basketball team to some of the more rural parts of Kentucky, where there were few African Americans. He considers why he was so successful as a coach and how teaching was a major part of his coaching.

Keywords: basketball players; desegregation; discipline; Douglas High School (Lexington, Ky.).; Dunbar High School; education; influence; parental support; racism; teaching; vandalism

Subjects: African American basketball players. African Americans. Basketball. Lexington (Ky.) Rupp, Adolph, 1901-1977. Smith, Tubby. Southeastern Conference.

91:27 - Sports and school integration

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Partial Transcript: Help me out with the history here... when did, um, in your coaching career, when did you start playing...

Segment Synopsis: Sports became integrated in 1957. Roach states his feelings about that at the time. He talks about his relationship with other coaches and why he was sure that the black players could win the State Tournament. He also talks about the racial makeup of basketball players.

Keywords: athletic integration; benefit events; Bill Tripit (??); coaches; dedication; discipline; integration; racism; referees; rural areas; semifinals; sports; state tournaments

Subjects: African Americans. Basketball. Louisville (Ky.). National Basketball Association. Pikeville (Ky.).

95:53 - Desegregation and African American schools

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Partial Transcript: I talked to a lot of, uh, educators, who, uh, sort of weighed the advantages and disadvantages of desegregation...

Segment Synopsis: They talk about some of the problems related to the integration of the schools, such as a loss of leadership opportunities for African American students and the closing of many of the black schools in Lexington. They talk about most of Dunbar High School being torn down post-integration and what happened to the teachers from these schools.

Keywords: African American educators; closing down schools; desegregation; Dr. Potts; Dunbar High School; high school athletics; school colors

Subjects: African Americans. Education. Lexington (Ky.). Teaching.

99:49 - Dunbar High School

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Partial Transcript: What do you... what went through your mind, if you don't mind me asking, when they talked about, uh, re... reestablishing Dunbar High School

Segment Synopsis: They talk about the new version of Dunbar High School, which was built some time afterwards. The gymnasium was named after him. He tells what happened to the records and trophies from the old Dunbar High School, and talks about the school colors. He compares Dunbar's gym to other schools' gyms. Roach states that the interview needs to stop soon, and the interview ends abruptly.

Keywords: board of education; Dunbar High School; gymnasiums; high school mascots; high school sports; high schools; parents; principals; school colors; school records; trophies

Subjects: African Americans. Education. Lexington (Ky.).

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